Great Red Spot
In 2016 we observed that the atmosphere 500 miles above the Great Red Spot is around ~1,600 Kelvin (1,200 Celsius; 2,400 Fahrenheit) compared to the background ~1,000 K (700 C, 1300 F). To explain this, we hypothesised that the atmospheric turbulence of GRS is leading to acoustic (sound) wave propagation upwards. When this waves reach a certain height they begin to “break” like ocean waves, releasing their kinetic energy in a way that heats the upper atmosphere.
Here’s a great overview video made by Space.com!
We have analysed Keck telescope data of Jupiter’s aurorae, which was taken while the Juno spacecraft was measuring the conditions of the solar wind. With this we have found that compressions (dense parts) of solar wind may be causing the aurora to heat up!